Saturday, August 24, 2019
Economy and Telecommunication Networks - Essay Example TDF has its disadvantages too in that division of labour leads to greater interdependency thus developed countries like the US allow and favor free flow of information to ensure management and coordination of other countries (Kamalipour, 2007). Therefore, TDF leads to developed countries controling the developing countries because of heir overreliability to their countries. Secondly according to Sawhney, Ã¢â¬Ëindustrielaizedcountries take a disappropiate share of the additional wealth produced by specialization and leave the ordinary workers poorly compensated for their contributionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sawhney, 1998). Lastly, TDF also leadsds to developed countries using it as a means to challenge local authority in third world countries. The most interesting issue in this book is the division of labour. This is issue is most interseting because in my view, this is where it all began. This is root cause of telecomunications data flow and other technologies. It is amazing how in the past business people could achieve produciton succesfully while using all locally available raw materials and complete a product from scratches. It is also pitiable that products that could be easily transported were only light high value goods like silk, which furthermore could only be afforded by the rich. Indeed division of labour has changed the world in that common people can affrod foreign producst . Moreover, division of labour has increased production rate, and enhanced specialization which has further led to quality due to experience, while also cutting on
Friday, August 23, 2019
Education - Research Paper Example There are a variety of post reading strategies that will heighten, enrich and refine interest in a specific topic, but the primary objective of post reading strategies is to further clarify and develop interpretations of readings and text, and to aid students recall whatever they have individually developed in their minds after reading a particular text. There are generally four main types of post reading strategies or activities. These are: a) Those provide students with the opportunity to ask questions with regards to assignments or readings. b) Those that concentrate on text structure c) Those that involve peer and classroom review d) Those that extend learning This paper will be based on the following paragraph from the book Tangerine by Edward Bloor: Antoine studied my face. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Erik FisherÃ¢â¬â¢s little brother?Ã¢â¬ I tightened up at the sound of ErikÃ¢â¬â¢s name. I mumbled, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Antoine said quietly, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to sta rt telling the truth, little brother. Do you understand what IÃ¢â¬â¢m saying?Ã¢â¬ I nodded like I understood. But, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Not really. Not until he added, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t spend your life under the bleachers, little brother. The truth shall set you free.Ã¢â¬ I nodded with real conviction now. ... Activity 1: Web The discussion web is a graphic illustration that helps students prepare for discussions in the classroom (Kinsella & Widener, 2001). In this case, the students will be required to develop a discussion centered on the paragraph drawn from the book that has been mentioned earlier and to primarily focus on the content. The discussion web is geared towards helping the students examine all sides of an issue and understand all perspectives emanating from that particular issue. Your role (the teacher) in this activity will be that of a moderator and an encourager (Behrens & Rosen, 2008). As a moderator, you will help the students to create a topic and stay focused on it. As an encourager, you will help the students engage participants and ensure that they are free to voice their opinions and points of view. Prepare students for listening or reading by establishing a purpose for reading, activating previous knowledge and introducing important vocabulary. After students have read the paragraph, introduce the web by way of a provocative question. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"was Paul a dishonest person?Ã¢â¬ 1. Students will be required (in pairs) to discuss the pros and cons of the question and then complete the web as a unit or team. They will take turns filling in as many NO and YES statements as they can generate. 2. Pairs are rearranged into units of four students, who then compare their webs and come up with one answer to the question. 3. The group chooses and records the most appropriate and strongest argument and gives its reasons for that choice. 4. Each group selects a spokesperson to report (in three minutes) the results, and then students with
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Importance of Being Earnest Essay The comedy in Importance of Being Earnest focuses on the aristocratic classes at the turn of the 19th century, the time when the play was written and set. Whilst creating humour by mocking their absurdities i. e. moral and social values and ideas, he also provides the audience the witty banter of the idle rich and their somewhat ridiculous lifestyles and attitudes to enjoy. These idle rich seem to revel in making trivial matters important and important matters trivial. Wilde uses a range of techniques to simultaneously mock aristocratic Victorian society and to create humour: dramatic irony; the dialogue and language of the characters i. e. puns/wordplay, paradoxes and their witticisms; the significance of the themes at the time of the play and today; the actions of the characters; characterisation and the development of the increasingly ridiculous plot, which all culminates in the discovery that Jack was the baby in the handbag. The play begins in a realistic atmosphere for the time that the play was set; the characters behave and talk in the leisurely, pointed and conscious manner of their day. The bachelors only relax when they are alone. We see their idle nature almost immediately through the characters trivial preoccupation with food, one of the themes of the play. In the first few lines of dialogue in the opening scene, we witness Wildes witty way with words and the consequent humour he creates in the scene. Algernon, avoids admitting that he plays poorly and claims that he plays with wonderful expression, as though doing so were more transcendent. He emerges to be quite a conceited character and it seems that Wilde intends him to represent the pompous nature of the rich, rather like Lady Bracknell does. Algernons dialogue is always polished and his quips, paradoxes and unorthodox attitudes provide quite a lot of the humour in the play. Sometimes, what the characters say might sound intelligent but in fact, is silly. It is hidden by the sophisticated sentence structures. Wildes use of language is rarely simple: as Gwendolen says, it is style not sincerity which is important, i. e. he cares more for a statement being clever rather than true. The characters in The Importance Of Being Earnest are all language conscious. The sentences they speak are perfectly formed and a reflection of how aristocrats would like to speak, not how they did speak at the time. They all try to sound intelligent. At all times, even at tense times, the characters prioritise the upholding of a fake mask of politeness. An example of this is when Lady Bracknell says rise from this semi-recumbent posture at once. Again it is a mockery of Victorian aristocrats. Both Dr Chasuble, who is somewhat pedantic, and Miss Prism show an explicit interest in the language they use, they repeatedly state where their metaphors are drawn from: Were I fortunate enough to be Miss Prisms pupil, I would hang upon her lips. I spoke metaphorically my metaphor was drawn from bee.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Discourse on Modernization Essay The discourse on Modernization was resisted by the Communists led by the USSR through a policy of isolation and xenophobia. The improvement of quality of life Modernization would bring was a threat to their hold on nations. Hence it was against the best interest of Communist governments that their holdings obtain genuine modernization. One major example was the Iron Curtain. Movement of people, goods and information was severely restricted along the east-west Germany border especially during the 50s and 60s. Starting with their refusal to accept Marshall plan aid after World War II, the nations falling under the Iron Curtain refused to have dealings with the west. By breaking contact with the West, they were able to limit the common peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness the people did not have a basis for comparison to realize how oppressive their lives really were. Another example was the foundation or support of various communist movements all over the World. Many of these organizations received financial and logistical support from the COMINTERN or the KGB. These organizations promoted the Communist ideal often with a nationalist or self-determinist bias. They tried to disparage Western Aid as a form of Imperialism to limit modernization it their respective countries. Shortcoming of the Ã¢â¬Å"modernization theoryÃ¢â¬ : Dichotomy of the Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ 5. Cultural Imperialism The Third World in the 1960s: Stagnation of the economic development; political instability Dependency Theory: Emerged in Latin America in the late 1960s Grounded in the neo-Marxist political-economy approach TNCs in the North exercise control, with the support of their respective governments, Over the developing countries by setting the terms of global trade ? developing nations remain Ã¢â¬Å"peripheralÃ¢â¬ Cultural Imperialism: The cultural aspects of dependency theory Ex: Herbert Schiller (1969) Mass Communications and American Empire US-based TNCs undermine cultural autonomy of the South US communications technology and investment, coupled with the new demand for media products, nessitate large-scale imports of US media products Consumerism is emphasized at the expense of community values
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Increased Competiveness And Agression Of Businesses In the authors perspective, Increasing competitiveness and aggression in the business environment has necessitated transformation of business practices to keep up with the dynamic environment. For instance, an organization needs to develop key skill (core competencies and strategic capabilities) needed as the basis for resource-based strategies (John Thompson Frank Martin 2005). Strategic capabilities are defined as the resources and skills available to an organization that needed to survive and win its competitors. The resource-based view of strategy: the competitive advantage and superior performance of an organisation are explained by the distinctiveness of its capabilities Johnson, SK., Whittington (2008, ch3, p94). This paper will critically analyse how eBays strategic capabilities might provide sustainable competitive advantage. Proposing and justify a structural type for which would maximise its strategic capabilities Making eBay work as a case study by Jill Shepard, Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Canada. This essay will begin by explaining the concept of strategic capabilities, strategy capabilities using an analytical framework, core competencies, competitive advantage, how organisations strategic capabilities can be analysed and measured using marketing tool called SWOT. The second section will briefly discuss what organisational structure is all about and types of organisational structures, present eBays structure, proposing and justifying a structural type for eBay which would maximise its strategic capabilities. Thirdly, implications and conclusions based on findings of the chapters and case study. The sensitivity of strategic capability is particularly necessary since it is concern with whether an organisations strategy continues to modify the environment and the opportunities and threats that exist. However, an organisations capabilities may be found the edge of strategic development, in the manner of creating new opportunities by stretching and exploiting the organisations capabilities such a manner which competitors get it or in genuine difficult to copy or create a new ability. This requires organisation to be innovative in the way they develop and utilize their capability. This is the resource-based view of strategy. Capabilities refer to the organizations ability to utilise its resources effectively. The author shall be discussing strategic capability considering the similarities and differences between resources and competencies. Strategic capability could be defined as the combination of resources and competencies of an organization that it requires to survive and participate in the industry. Strategic Capabilities and Competitive Advantage As regards resources, tangible resources are visible and physical assets of an organization such as building and people. Intangible resources are invisible asset of an organization such as knowledge. Physical resources are the visible resources of the organization comprising of machines or production components e.t.c. while financial resources are the resources used to operate the organization on a daily basis includes cash, creditor e.t.c. Human resources are the combination such as training and recruitment, skills and knowledge of an organizational networks. Intellectual resources are intangible resources that involve patents, brands, business system, and customer database. Resources is vital to an organization because they provide the organization to produce at lower cost or create a superior product or service. Resources such as tangible and intangible of an organisation are not enough to survive and competition in a dynamic environment. It depends on the organizationals ability to deploy their resources of its capacity and competencies in an efficiently in the organizational activities and processes. Threshold resources Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ IT server platforms and space Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Offices and facilities Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Appropriate personnel Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Sufficient customers and suppliers Threshold competences Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Account management Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ All other general managerial skills Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Sophisticated ICT skills Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Customers and suppliers who are competent Unique resources Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The biggest on-line electronic exchange platform Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The eBay brand Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ First mover advantage Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ An active and vocal community of users Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Learning from experience Unique competences Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ A unique form of account management that balances central control versus decentralised community involvement Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Leadership in terms of ability to renew the Board and keep a sense of consistency Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Electronic platform management skills Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Partnering on the internet (deciding when and how to compete) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Web 2.0 management skillsThere are various capabilities (resources or competencies) that are in Threshold and Unique resources explained below: Threshold resources could be termed to be the basic resources required to meet customers basic requirements in order to exist. Unique resources are resources that strengthening and stabilizing competitive advantage which are devilishly difficult to cope imitate and obtain by competitors in the market. Threshold competencies are activities and processes required to meet customers basic requirements in order to exist in a given market. Unique competencies are activities that strengthening and stabilizing competitive advantage which is extremely difficult to cope, imitate and obtain by competitors in a given market. Threshold Capabilities are capabilities required/ need to exist/ remain in the market. Firms having threshold capabilities are less innovative, little focus on current customer requirements, and do not welcome changes. Competitive Capabilities are capabilities required/ needed to get a competitive advantage. Firms having competitive capabilities welcome changes, mad to acquire new technologies before competitors (These days software to facilitate sales workforce collaboration software are new arrivals in the corporate world), coping with current customer requirements pursuing the environment of continuous improvement in their organizations. Competitive Advantage It can be defined as the ability of an organisation to out-perform its competitors (Campbell, Stonehouse and Houston, 2000, p. 324). Measurement is possible in terms of superior profitability, increase in market share, return on investment, etc. (Stonehouse et al., 2000). However, it is a fundamental aim of business strategy to maintain competitive advantage over certain given of time called sustained competitive advantage (SCA). Johnson and Scholes (1999) suggest low-price, differentiation or switching cost strategies to build up competitive advantage and hold it over time. Core competence are the skills and abilities by which resources are deployed through an organisations activities and processes such as to achieve competitive advantage in ways that others cannot imitate or obtain ( Johnson, Scholes Whittington, 2008, ch. 3 p.97). Sources of Cost Efficiency: Managers of most organisations currently lead management of cost as source or key to Strategic capabilities advantage. In order to maintain low cost, attention must be paid to these key drivers such as economics of scale, supply cost, products product design, experience, Growth, unit cost should down slopping and first-mover advantage. In order to sustaining competitive advantage over time as a manager while managing cost efficiently and continuously, other vital criteria are of immense importance namely: 1. Value: Organisation must be able to build capabilities that are of value to its customers. 2. Rarity: For an organisation to sustain competitive advantage, it should possess unique capabilities. There are just three important key points to consider about the extent to which unique competence might provide sustainable competitive advantage: Transferability: Rarity to a great extent depends on who own the competence and difficulty of transferring it. Sustainability: How long will the manager be able to sustain it unique competencies? Most time is temporary and competitive transfer it over time. So an organisation must be dynamic by nature by look out for other bases of sustainability. Core rigidity: This is another case of redundancy. 3. Inimitable: It all involves identifying capabilities that likely to remain for a reasonable time and impossible or very difficult to imitate or copy. So, in order for an organisation to achieve and sustain advantage and core competencies the following factors must be considered below: (1). They pave ways for higher level of performance more than rivals own. (2). They are in most cases very hard and difficult to imitate. There are two reasons for core competencies of an organisation to be imitated because they are complex. Complexity: (a.) Internal linkages. This is as a result of linking the activities and processes that together deliver value to customers. (b.) External interconnectedness: This can best be termed as co-specialisation. Culture and history: It involves core competencies may be embedded in an organisational culture. Causal ambiguity: This is another good reason why core competence cant be imitated by competitors. It is very difficult to discover the causes and effects underpinning organisations advantage. There are two types of ambiguity namely characteristic ambiguity and linkage ambiguity. Non-substitutability: adding and providing value to customers that are complex and ambiguity making it impossible / very difficult to copy. To sustain competitive advantage over, an organisation must strategically position itself in such a way that capabilities in ways that activities and resources and competencies are deployed as to sustain competitive advantage over it competitors. Diagnosing strategic capability: If an organization is to achieve competitive advantage by adding value to customer, the following must be understood below: Value Chain: Describes the in and out categories of activities of an organisation that both create a product/ services. It is more directly concerned with the creation and delivery of a product/ services. Value Network: Describes the inter-organisational link and relationship needed to create a product. Activity Maps: It shows how the various activities are linking together in an organisation. Benchmarking: It deals with comparison of both programs strategic position of rivals. SWOT: Summarises analysis of Business environment (Opportunities and threats) Strategic capabilities (Strengths and weaknesses). Brief History of eBay EBay Inc. is an internationally recognized e-commerce company that manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses purchase and sell globally a variety of goods and services to a wide range of clients (Filley Aldan, 1980 p 56). Currently, eBay is a multi-billion dollar company with physical infrastructures of operations in more than thirty countries. EBay website was founded in San JoseHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Jose,_California, California, on September 3, 1995, by French-born Iranian computer programmer Pierre Omidyar. Millions of collectables, interior decorations, appliances, electronics, furniture, trappings, equipment, vehicles, and other miscellaneous items are listed, bought, or sold daily on eBay. EBay expanded from its original set-time auction format to include Buy It Now standard shoppings online advertisements; online event ticket trading; online money transfers and other services. In addition, eBay launched its Bu siness Industrial category in the year 2006 breaking into the industrial surplus business (Whitten, 1987 p 6). Analytical framework analysis of eBay Inc To strategically maintain as well as promoting its success level, eBay has a highly motivated human capital. This is through provision of a favorable working environment comprised of satisfaction of physiological needs, provision of safety within the work, availability of career growth opportunities for self actualization as well as self esteem. This has made eBay working force to be oriented to the organizational goals and objectives. This has subsequently accrued substantial benefits to the organizations performance (Cameron Whitten, 1983 p 67). Apart from internal customer satisfaction, eBay has embarked on satisfying its external customers in a number of ways. For instance, a diverse range of products as well as services can be accessed by their customer by just a click of the button (Yukl, 2010. P 43). EBay has a collection diverse range of product. The probability of any customer with a given unique needs for a given product or service lacking the desired need or service is significantly low. Subsequently, eBay serves a central or a core point area where all customers with diverse needs as well as wants can integrate into their satisfaction. According to statistical reports which were collected in the United States of America, the satisfactory level of customers accessing or conducting their business through eBay platform is significantly high. Consequently, the organization has managed to acquire a high market share (Hedger, Nostrum Starbuck, 1976 p 67). The risks associated with ecommerce trading activities have been significantly reduced by the open communication strategies and channels which have been adopted by the eBay organization. For instance, eBay has a well conversant informed customer care services which equip their customer with necessary information on any information concerning the Internet trading. For instance, eBay has a safe online payment channel which can be adopted or used by its customers. Online payment and other fiscal transactions processes have reduced risks associated with check payments as well as travelling with liquid cash (Meyer, 1977 p 81). SWOT analysis of eBay Inc SWOT analysis entails the evaluation process of the organizations internal and external environmental elements which are likely to induce a change in the operations of the business entity. Consequently, SWOT analysis comprise of evaluating external factors such as opportunities and threats which are known to face the organization as well evaluating the internal elements with mainly focus on weaknesses as well as on the organizations strengths. EBay Inc is an organization which has adopted technological elements into its mode of operation. Consequently, a number of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities as well as threats may dominate it area of operation (Hedger, Nostrum Starbuck, 1976 p 89). Evaluating on the strengths which are possessed by this organization, eBay has developed a vast and an immense number of clients or stakeholders who largely contributes to it overall performance. These stakeholders include current customers, supportive client such as financiers as well as reliable employees. In addition, it has developed a strong financial backbone which has been supportive to it overall goal achievement. Also, eBay has developed a strong customer-organization bond through the creation of high confidence level between the organization and its clients. This is through customer analysis and delivery of services and ordered goods in the appropriated needed time. Bearing in mind ninety nine percent of eBay transactions are carried out through online platform, people are generally afraid to deal with virtual elements especially on matters concerning their fiscal status. However, eBay has secured a substantial number of such customers by creating a high confidence level (Zammuto, Cameron, 1985 p 6). Another eBays dominance, it is the first-mover advantage as regards online auction site. Consequently, most of its customers felt no worries about going about buying goods physically. Therefore, this triggered most customers to come back. Ebay has a very strong business model and updating it. Just as it was redefined by Meg Whiteman by establishing strong linkages of activities in the operational aspect of the organization. eBay also had a very strong technological base e.g. leveraging ICT. Using Pay pal account as means of payment made every transaction be secured and easy. Nevertheless, eBay is faced by a number of weaknesses, it has a poor organizational structure which limits it contact with it clients. Maintenance of customers usually requires an intimate contact which sometimes involves reading of facial expressions. In addition, though eBay website can be accessed in almost all parts of the world through the Internet, customers in some geographical regions cannot be served with eBay services. This is contributed by poor distribution channels which limit the eBay services to some specific regions only. A part from these weaknesses, the organization is also faced by a number of emerging threats. For instance, the barriers to entry in the Internet based trading systems are relatively low a factor which has led to a high number of entrants. This has posed as a threat to the operations of eBay Inc (Gallos, 2008. P 68). Despite these weaknesses and threats being faced by eBay Inc, there are a number of opportunities which the organization can effectively utilize in order to maximize it profits. For instance, the technological advancement which has been witnessed in the electronic world can be utilized to enhance the customer base. In addition, eBay has an opportunity of merging with a number of suppliers and other stakeholders to boost its overall performance. This is usually based on the fiscal status which eBay has obtained since it times of operations in the Internet based services (Kast Rosenzweig, 1972 p 78). Capabilities that have provided eBay with a competitive advantage This organization has a strong financial background which enables it to embark successfully on new profit generating strategies. In addition, it has embarked on product diversification as one strategy to promote its profit generating factors. EBay is a multi-billion dollar company with physical infrastructures of operations in more than thirty countries. Millions of collectables, interior decorations, appliances, electronics, furniture, trappings, equipment, vehicles, and other miscellaneous items are listed, bought, or sold daily on eBay (Pierce, 2003 p 6). Strategic capabilities of the eBay in a nutshell might include: Business model creation and updating:- The business model of eBay is brilliant and simple. They facilitate a service of enabling transactions between millions of users. They also have no inventory. eBay does not have to consider production, packaging, and shipping of the goods sold. There is no need for a large number of employees at achieve their organizational goals. The main source of costs for eBay is technical. They perform tasks as maintenance of servers and networks. This is the marketplace Internet business model being used to much of its potential. Revenue is generated in both business to consumer and business to business transactions. The auction and transaction revenue will continue to rise as the number of users rises. Ebay has a very strong business model and updating it. Just as it was redefined by Meg Whiteman by establishing strong linkages of activities in the operational aspect of the organization. Managing growth: eBay reported record consolidated Q1-07 net revenues of $1.77 billion, representing a growth rate of 27% year over year. GAAP operating income was $468 million, an increase of 45% year over year, and represented 26.5% of net revenues. Non-GAAP operating income in Q1-07 was $593 million, representing a 33.6% operating margin and a 29% year-over-year increase. Leveraging ICT:- ICT as both strategic and operational at the same time. So getting the server up and running initially would have been strategic but now managing traffic would be considered operational, whereas incorporating any new versions of the Internet and its functionality would be considered strategic. Accommodating different high speed broadband penetrations within individual countries would currently be strategic but become less of a strategic issue over time. Knowledge management:- Knowledge in organisational terms does not mean data and information alone. It means experience both of individuals and between individuals (i.e. of groups or across an organisation). This sharing takes place, not least, through the day to day activities and routines in organizations. If strategic capability is conceived of in terms of competence (i.e. activities as well as resources), then the relationship of strategic capability to organisational knowledge. So, it darned close. It becomes even closer if robust (non- imitable) competencies are conceived of as linked and embedded competencies. Account management:- eBays technology allow every particulars of users both sellers and buyer to be traced since very users must first register to again access to buy or sell. This create a great deal of trust among users. Customer involvement:- ebay managers listen to all their customers and always meet the needs as regards what they want to sell/ buy and how they want to do it. And more so, the management involves their customers by inviting 10 sellers and buyers all over the country to their main office every few months to discuss the company in dept. Service and shareholder management:- eBay has developed a vast and an immense number of clients or stakeholders who largely contributes to it overall performance. These stakeholders include current customers, supportive client such as financiers as well as reliable employees. In addition, it has developed a strong financial backbone which has been supportive to it overall goal achievement. Rather than, be critical:- Meg might look to the challenges that the company faces ahead of time. These might include not becoming complacent about success, how to keep customers passionate about the company and how to expand into new geographical areas. Sustainability and dynamic capabilities The attainment of any eBays goals and objectives is directly reflected by the kind of leadership and environment found in that organization. Different managers and human resource organizers embrace various forms of leadership. Nevertheless, their overall aim objective is to adhere to the stipulated mission with no signs of complacency and a subsequent attainment of the organizational goals. Being a leader in any form of business entails a set of processes connected to directing and guiding employees towards the attainment of stipulated goals. This endeavor of assure that the business entity is heading towards its vision comprise of effective employee motivation, embracement of appropriate leading structure and strategies and timely effective communication among the internal and external members affecting the business entity (Clark, 2010). EBay has been dynamic to embrace technological measures which are aimed in maintaining a lead in the field of it operations. For example, incorpora tion of new modern software, use of Internet security tools as well as developing future oriented goals to cater for its customers (Gallos, 2008 p 34). Frequent trainings and seminars for it employees can effectively boost the competence level for employees in eBay Inc. In addition, online training and guidance manuals can highly boost the performance level for the eBay operations. Organisational Structure The organising process leads to the creation of organisation structure. Organisation structure can be defined as the framework in which the organisation defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed and departments are coordinated (Samson Daft, 2009, p. 328). The structure of an organisation should be set up in such a way as to help the organisation accomplish its mission in an efficient and effective manner. The mission of an organisation can be defined by its mission statement. A mission statement is designed to answer the most fundamental questions for every organization: Why do we exist? What are we here for? What is our purpose? As such, mission statements form the corner-stone and the starting-point for any major strategic planning initiative (Christopher K. Bart, 2001, p. 19). An organisations structure can be represented visually with an organisation chart (Samson Daft, 2009, p. 328). Structure has three components: complexity, formalisation and centralisation. Complexity refers to the degree of specialisation of an organisations employees, how labour is divided, the number of levels and geographical dispersion. Formalisation is concerned with the degree of rules and procedures, and centralisation refers to levels of decision making (Holtzhausen, 2002, p. 325). The characteristics of organisation structure include work specialisation (the degree to which organisational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labour), chain of command (An unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in the organisation and specifies who reports to whom), authority (The formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, issue orders and allocate resources to achieve organisationally desired outcomes) and responsibility (The duty to perform the task or activity an employee has been assigned), span of managerial control (the number of emplo yees who report to a supervisor), and centralization (The location of decision authority at a single point, usually near top organisational levels) and decentralization (The dispersed location of decision authority, usually near lower organisational levels). These dimensions represent the vertical hierarchy and define how authority and responsibility are distributed. Departmentalization describes how organisation employees are grouped (Samson Daft, 2009). Types of structures The three most common generic organizational structures are the functional structure, the divisional structure and the matrix structure. There are also hybrid structures consisting of network structure and team structure. Functional Structure The functional structure is a direct descendant of the bureaucratic structure. It is based on a groups function or dedicated activities in an organization such as sales and marketing, finance and operations. The structures effectiveness is based on this division of labour. Smaller to medium-sized organizations with limited product ranges tend to favour the functional structure (Martinsons Martinsons, 1994, p. 24). Advantages of functional structure: Efficient use of resources economies of scale In-depth skill specialisation and development Career progress within functional departments Top manager direction and control Excellent coordination within functions High-quality technical problem solving Best with one or few types of products Disadvantages of functional structure Poor communication across functional departments Slow response to external changes, lagging innovation Decisions concentrated at the top of hierarchy, creating delay Responsibility for problems is difficult to pinpoint Limited view of organisational goals by employees Limited general management training for employees Less innovation (Samson Daft, 2009) (Duncan, 1979) Divisional Structure This structure is used as companies become larger and begin to diversify their product line. The company is divided into separate units based on different products or markets. The company breaks up its operations into manageable units or little companies which then operate under a mechanistic structure (Martinsons Martinsons, 1994, p. 24). Advantages of divisional structure: Fast response, flexibility in an unstable environment Fosters concern for customers needs because product responsibility and contact points are clear Excellent coordination across functional departments Easy pinpointing of responsibility for product problems Emphasis on overall product and division goals Development of general management skills Best in a large organisation with several products Disadvantages of divisional structure Duplication of resources across divisions Less technical depth and specialisation in divisions Poor coordination across divisions Less top management control Competition for corporate resources Eliminates economies of scale in functional departments. Makes integration and standardization across product lines difficult (Samson Daft, 2009) (Duncan, 1979) The Matrix Structure The matrix structure was the structure of the 1970s (Miller, 1986). It was seen as a way of bridging the advantages of the functional and divisional structures. The matrix structure is based on a dual chain of command. The functional departments are used to gain economies of specialization while the project teams focus on particular products or markets. Each employee in the matrix structure is responsible for one functional department and one project manager, hence the dual chain of command (Martinsons Martinsons, 1994, p. 25). Advantages of matrix structure: More efficient use of resources than single hierarch Flexibility, adaptability to changing environment Development of both general and specialist management skills Interdisciplinary cooperation, expertise available to all divisions Enlarged tasks for employees Best in medium-sized organizations with multiple products Disadvantages of matrix structure Frustration and confusion from dual chain of command High conflict between two sides of matrix Many meetings, more discussion than action Human relations training needed Power dominance by one side of the matrix. Team-based structure With a team-based structure, the entire organisation is made up of horizontal teams that coordinate their work and work directly with customers to accomplish the organisations goals (Samson Daft, 2009, p. 344). Advantages of team structure: Reduced barriers among departments, increased compromise Less response time, quicker decisions Better morale, enthusiasm from employee involvement Reduced administrative overhead Less absenteeism Increased performance Higher quality products Reduced turnover Disadvantages of team structure Dual loyalties and conflicts Time and resource spent on meetings Unplanned decentralisation (Samson Daft, 2009) (Harris, 1992) Network structure: Advantages: Global competitiveness Workforce flexibility/challenge Reduced administrative overhead Disadvantages: No hands-on control Can lose organisational part Employee loyalty weakened Analysing eBay current and the best organizational structure for the eBay Inc eBays organizational structure is a source of competitive advantage as it is the basis for the companys ability to process information
Trouble in DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s Artworld DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of artistic identification accepts a problematic class of artwork as art: art made entirely of space. Consider the avant-garde artist who claims an unoccupied space in the Museum of Modern Art and calls it Ã¢â¬Å"Missing Van Gogh;Ã¢â¬ it can be shown by DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"isÃ¢â¬ of artistic identification that her work is art. It not only fulfills DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements, but also, it distinguishes itself as revolutionary by expanding the style matrix, and as clever, by belonging to the once-problematic category of artwork called Ã¢â¬Ëindiscernibles.Ã¢â¬â¢ However, it can be shown that Ã¢â¬Å"Missing Van GoghÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ lack of spatial and temporal boundaries adds infinite predicates to the style matrix and thus reveals a flaw in DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of artistic identification requires only that the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"x is P,Ã¢â¬ where x is a given work and P a predicate functioning as an interpretation of that work, apply to a member of what he calls the Ã¢â¬ËArtworld.Ã¢â¬â¢ He calls the word Ã¢â¬ËisÃ¢â¬â¢ between x and the P in the sentence the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Å"isÃ¢â¬ of artistic interpretation,Ã¢â¬â¢ and any work indicated by this Ã¢â¬ËisÃ¢â¬â¢ is art. For instance, we may say Ã¢â¬Å"the Eroica Symphony is profound.Ã¢â¬ By DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s definition, the fact that this artistic interpretation of the work is possible is sufficient to show that it is a work of art. Danto also posits a style matrix consisting of all the variant combinations of art-relevant predicates in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Artworld. This matrix serves as a context in which all artworks can be discussed, and is open to the addition of predicates as artists make innovative breakthroughs. The revolutionary beauty of DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory lies in its openness and simplicity; it is able to embrace new artistic developments because it refuses to identify specific properties as indicative of artwork status. It is more accepting than theories which name properties, such as the family resemblance theory, which rejects the first of every new class of artwork, or even GautÃ¢â¬â¢s cluster theory, which demands some consistency. Yet, this radical openness of DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory demands scrutiny; if there is an artwork which DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory accepts on account of its openness, but which it ought not to, then DantoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is flawed.
Monday, August 19, 2019
James Mallahan Cain's Life Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã James Mallahan Cain was born in Annapolis, as the son of an educator and Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã an opera singer.Ã He studied at Washington College, in Chesterton, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Maryland, earning his B.A. at the age of eighteen, and masters in 1917.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the same year the United States had declared war on Germany in April of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1917, and Cain registered for the draft.Ã After serving in World War I, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cain returned to Baltimore where he began working as a reporter.Ã He first Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã worked for the Baltimore American and then for the Baltimore Sun until Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1923.Ã After a time in New York, Cain moved to Hollywood.Ã From 1932 to Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1947 Cain lived in Southern California writing for films, but did not have Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã much success and he drank too much.Ã When turning to fiction Cain did find Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã greater success. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cain wrote novels of crime, sex, and betrayal.Ã The majority of his plots Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã follow the same predictable plan: A man falls for a woman, becomes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã involved in criminal activity with the woman, and is eventually betrayed Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã by the woman.Ã His subject was to be a woman who uses men to gain her Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ends, and he imagined his theme in the figure of Mildred Pierce, a Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã housewife who becomes a successful restaurateur.Ã Then this theme of a Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã woman asserting her power through men is given several curious twists by Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cain's particular imaginative preoccupations.Ã The novel develops and Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã extends the strong association in Cain's earlier works between food, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã finance, and mothering.Ã And what began as the story of a woman's relation Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã to men and to business becomes a story of Mildred Pierce's relations to Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã her daughter Veda, and Veda's unscrupulous use of her mother to advance Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã her own operatic ambitions and satisfy her own sexual needs.Ã If one is to Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã judge from the fiction, Cain seems to have been emotionally ambivalent Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã toward both parents.Ã There are almost no happy families in his works.